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Mikhail Gorbachev: Last Soviet leader passes away at 91

He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990 "for the leading role he played in the radical changes in East-West relations".

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Moscow: One of the most influential politicians of the 20th Century and former Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev has passed away. He was 91.

The former president who opened up the USSR and brought the Cold War to a peaceful end died at a hospital here in the Russian capital, media reports said Wednesday.

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As per ABC news, he died “after a serious and long illness”, the Central Clinical Hospital reported on Tuesday.

Gorbachev assumed office in 1985 and opened up the then-USSR to the world introducing a set of reforms at home.

He was, however, unable to prevent the slow collapse of the Soviet Union, from which modern Russia emerged.

Tributes have been pouring in for Gorbachev from around the world:

“Mikhail Gorbachev was a one-of-a-kind statesman,” UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres wrote in a Twitter tribute. “The world has lost a towering global leader, committed multilateralist, and tireless advocate for peace.”

Russian President Vladimir Putin expressed his deepest condolences and his spokesman Dmitry Peskov told the Russian news agency Interfax, the BBC said.

US President Joe Biden called him a “rare leader” and praised Gorbachev as a unique politician who had the “imagination to see that a different future was possible” amid the tensions of the Cold War.

European Union President Ursula von der Leyen praised him as a “trusted and respected leader” who “opened the way for a free Europe”.

“This legacy is one we will not forget,” she added.

UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson said he admired Gorbachev’s courage and integrity, adding: “In a time of Putin’s aggression in Ukraine, his tireless commitment to opening up Soviet society remains an example to us all.”

Gorbachev became general secretary of the Soviet Communist Party, and de facto leader of the country, in 1985.

At the time, he was 54 – the youngest member of the ruling council known as the Politburo and was seen as a breath of fresh air after several aging leaders.

Few leaders have had such a profound effect on the global order.

The Soviet economy had been struggling for years to keep up with the US and his policy of Perestroika sought to introduce some market-like reforms to the state-run system.

Internationally he reached arms control deals with the US, refused to intervene when eastern European nations rose up against their Communist rulers, and ended the bloody Soviet war in Afghanistan that had raged since 1979, the BBC said.

His policy of glasnost, or openness, allowed people to criticize the government in a way that had been previously unthinkable.

But it also unleashed nationalist sentiments in many regions of the country which eventually undermined the stability of the country and led to its collapse.

In 1991, after a shambolically organized coup by communist hardliners failed, Gorbachev agreed to dissolve the Soviet Union and left office, the report added.

He is seen in the West as an architect of reform who created the conditions for the end of the Cold War in 1991 – a time of deep tensions between the Soviet Union and Western nations, including the US and Britain.

He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990 “for the leading role he played in the radical changes in East-West relations”.

But in the new Russia that emerged after 1991, he has been on the fringes of politics, focusing on educational and humanitarian projects.

Gorbachev made one ill-fated attempt to return to political life in 1996, receiving just 0.5 percent of the vote in presidential elections.

Henry Kissinger, who served as US Secretary of State under President Richard Nixon, told the BBC that Gorbachev will be “remembered in history as a man who started historic transformations that were to the benefit of mankind and to the Russian people”.

James Baker, who negotiated the reunification of Germany with Gorbachev’s government, told the New York Times that “history will remember Mikhail Gorbachev as a giant who steered his great nation towards democracy”.

But many Russians never forgave him for the turmoil that followed the collapse of the USSR.

In recent years his health has been in decline. In June, international media reported he was suffering from a kidney ailment, though his cause of death has not been announced, BBC added.

He will be buried in Moscow’s Novodevichy cemetery, the resting place of many prominent Russians, next to his wife Raisa who died of leukaemia in 1999, Tass news agency said.

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